A word that modifies the meaning of a verb is called an Adverb.
SOME IMPORTANT RULES:
- Adverbs of manner such is well, fast, quickly, carefully, calmly etc. are placed after the verb if there is no object and after the object if there is one.
(a) It is raining heavily.
(b) She speaks English well.
- Adverbs of time such as always, often, sometimes, never, generally, ever, merely, seldom etc. are placed before the verb they qualify.
(a) I seldom meet him. (Right)
(b) I meet him seldom. (Wrong)
Adverbs of degree refer to words which show “how much”, “in what degree” or “to what extent” does the action takes place.
CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING:
- Meaning of too is more than enough. Too denotes some kind of excess.
(a) He is too weak to walk.
(b) It is never too late.
Hence, use of very in place of too is wrong.
For example: Instead of saying that
(a) Cow’s milk is too nutritious
We should say that
(b) Cow’s milk is very nutritious.
- Enough is placed after the word it qualifies.
For example: Everyone should be strong enough to support one’s family.
It will be wrong if we write ‘Everyone should be enough strong to support one’s family’.
- Much is used with past participles.
(a) He was much disgusted with his life.
(b) The news was much surprising.
Very is used with present participles.
(a) He is very disgusted with his life.
(b) The news is very surprising.
- Very and much are also used to emphasise superlative form of adjectives/adverbs-
(a) Rishi is the very best boy in his class.
(b) Rishi is much the best boy in his class.
Adverbs of Affirmation or Negation refer to words that assert the action emphatically.
Consider these examples:
(a) He certainly was a winner among them.
(b) Luckily he survived the crash.
CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING:
- No sooner should always be followed by than.
(a) No sooner I saw him I trembled with fear. (Wrong)
(b) No sooner did I see him than I trembled with fear. (Right)
- ‘Not’ should not be used with the words which have negative meaning if we want the sentence to be negative.
(a) I received no letter neither from him nor from her. (Wrong)
(b) I received letter neither from him nor from her. (Right)
- ‘Of course’ is used to denote a natural consequence. It should not be used in place of certainly, undoubtedly.
(a) Of course he is the best player. (Wrong)
(b) He is certainly the best player. (Right)
FOLLOWING ARE COMMON RULES OF ADVERBS IN GENERAL:
- Only is used before the word it qualifies.
(a) Only I spoke to him.
(b) I only spoke to him.
(c) I spoke to him only.
- Else is followed by but and not by than.
For example: It is nothing else but hypocrisy.
- ‘As’ is often used in a sentence though there is no need for it.
(a) He is elected as the President. (Wrong)
(b) He is elected President. (Right)
- ‘Perhaps’ means possibly whereas ‘probably’ means most likely.
(a) Where is Govinda? Perhaps he is not here. (Wrong)
(b) Where is Govinda? Probably he is not here. (Right)